Head and neck cancer
Not using tobacco or alcohol can reduce the risk for head andneck cancer. The HPV vaccine may reduce the lifetime risk of oral cancer if taken prior to the onset of sexual activity. Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus, betel quid, radiation exposure and workplace exposures.
About Head and neck cancer in brief
Head and neck cancer develops from tissues in the mouth, larynx, salivary glands, nose, sinuses or the skin of the face. Symptoms predominantly include a sore that does not heal or a change in the voice. In those with advanced disease, there may be unusual bleeding, facial pain, numbness or swelling, and visible lumps on the outside of the neck or oral cavity. The HPV vaccine may reduce the lifetime risk of oral cancer if taken prior to the onset of sexual activity, but confirmation will likely not be known until around 2060. Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus, betel quid, radiation exposure, certain workplace exposures and alcohol use. Not using tobacco or alcohol can reduce the risk for head andneck cancer. Head and neck Cancer accounts for 650,000 new cases of cancer and 330,000 deaths annually on average. In 2018, it was the seventh most common cancer worldwide with 890,000 cases documented and 450,000 dying from the disease. In the United States, it makes up 3% of all cancer cases and 1.5% of cancer deaths. The usual age at diagnosis is between 55 and 65 years old. The average 5-year survival following diagnosis in the developed world is 42-64%. The diagnosis is confirmed by tissue biopsy. The degree of surrounding tissue invasion and distant spread may be determined by medical imaging and blood tests. Head & neck cancer often is curable if it is diagnosed early; however, outcomes are typically poor if it’s diagnosed late. Treatment may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
Cancers are strongly associated with tobacco use, especially use chewing chewing as well as heavy alcohol use of tobacco or dipping tobacco. Surgeries for oral cancers, particularly the tongue, are more frequently treated with surgery than are other head and neck cancers. The defect is typically covered by using another part of the body and wearing a prosthesis. Most of these cancers are squamous cell cancers, which are typically treated with skin grafts and grafts. While some nasal cancer affects the paranasal sinus and the sinus sinus, most of these are non-cancerous. Most cancers are secondary to chronic alcohol or tobacco use. However, HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer is rising, particularly in younger people in westernized nations, which is thought to be reflective of changes in oral sexual practices. The cancer arises in the region in which the nasal cavities connect with the upper throat and the nasopharynx with the part of throat that connects the upper and lower parts of the throat with the nasal cavity. This is a relatively new vaccine. While screening in the general population does not appear to be useful, screening high risk groups by examination of the throats might be useful. Other symptoms can include: a lump in the lip, mouth or gums, ulcers or mouth sores that do not heal, bleeding from the mouth or numbness, bad breath, discolored patches that persist in the mouths.