Lung cancer is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth. The most common symptoms are coughing, weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains. Cigarette smoke contains at least 73 known carcinogens, including benzopyrene, NNK, 1,3-butadiene, and a radioactive isotope of polonium –Polonium-210. Marijuana contains many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke, but is more dangerous than tobacco smoke.
About Lung cancer in brief
Lung cancer is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth. The most common symptoms are coughing, weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are due to long-term tobacco smoking. About 10–15% of cases occur in people who have never smoked. These cases are often caused by a combination of genetic factors and exposure to radon gas, asbestos, second-hand smoke, or other forms of air pollution. Cigarette smoke contains at least 73 known carcinogens, including benzopyrene, NNK, 1,3-butadiene, and a radioactive isotope of polonium –Polonium-210. Passive smoking results in roughly 3,400 lung cancer-related deaths each year in the US. Marijuana contains many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke, however it is more dangerous than tobacco smoke. A 2014 review found that vaping may be a risk factor for lung cancer but than that of smoke from another’s smoking. In the United States, five-year survival rate is 19. 4%, while in Japan it is 41. 4%. Outcomes on average are worse in the developing world. In many people, the cancer has already spread beyond the original site by the time they have symptoms and seek medical attention. Symptoms that suggest the presence of metastatic disease include weight loss,. bone pain, and neurological symptoms. Common sites of spread include the brain, bone, adrenal glands, opposite lung, liver, pericardium, and kidneys. Most cases are not curable. Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
The diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy which is usually performed by bronchoscopy or CT-guidance. In 2012, lung cancer occurred in 1.8 million people and resulted in 1 million deaths. This makes it the most common cause of cancer- related death in men and second most common in women after breast cancer. Across the developed world, 90% of lungcancer deaths in men during the year 2000 were attributed to smoking. A passive smoker can be defined as either living or working with a smoker. Those who live with someone who have a 20–30% increase in risk have a 16–19% increased risk in risk of dying from lung cancer. In nonsmokers, the risk is significantly higher. The risk of developing lung cancer is about the same as those who live in an environment with a 20-30% risk of smoking, such as a secondhand smoke smoke, while those who work in an smoke-filled environment have a 15-19% increase in risk. If the cancer grows in the airways, it may obstruct airflow, causing breathing difficulties. The obstruction can also lead to accumulation of secretions behind the blockage, and increase the risk of pneumonia. In lung cancer, paraneoplastic phenomena — symptoms not due to the local presence of cancer — may initially attract attention to the disease. These phenomena may include hypercalcemia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, ectopic ACTH production, or Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome.