Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium. The first sign is vaginal bleeding not associated with a menstrual period. Other symptoms include pain with urination, pain during sexual intercourse, or pelvic pain. Risk factors include obesity, diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, use of tamoxifen, never having a child, late menopause, high levels of estrogen, and increasing age.
About Endometrial cancer in brief
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium. It is the result of the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The first sign is most often vaginal bleeding not associated with a menstrual period. Other symptoms include pain with urination, pain during sexual intercourse, or pelvic pain. Risk factors include obesity, diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, use of tamoxifen, never having had a child, late menopause, high levels of estrogen, and increasing age. An estimated 40% of cases are thought to be related to obesity. Taking estrogen alone increases the risk of endometrialcancer. Taking both estrogen and a progestogen in combination, as in most birth control pills, decreases the risk. The overall five-year survival rate in the United States is greater than 80%. In 2012, endometrioid carcinoma was the third most common cause of death in cancers which only affect women, behind ovarian and cervical cancer. The leading treatment option is abdominal hysterectomy, together with removal of the Fallopian tubes and ovaries on both sides, called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. In more advanced cases, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or hormone therapy may also be recommended. If the disease is diagnosed at an early stage, the outcome is favorable, and the overall five year survival rate is more than 80% in the U.S. Women who are unopposed to estrogen are at greater risk from cancer from lower doses of estrogen or longer periods of estrogen.
Women with irregular ovulation or no ovulation are also at greater risks from endometrian cancer. A longer fertility period is another risk factor. Estrogen replacement therapy during menopausal women is not balanced when not balanced with progestin. The risk of developing cancer by 300% by 300–400%. Estrogen Replacement Therapy during Menopause is also a risk factor by 300-400%. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, which also causes irregular or irregular periods, are at a greater risk of cancer from higher levels of estrogen. Obesity also causes less ovulation and no or no removed from the blood for the same reasons as obesity, type II diabetes, and insulin resistance. The cancer is more common in the developed world and is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Rates of endometricrial cancer have risen in a number of countries between the 1980s and 2010. This is believed to be due to the increasing number of elderly people and increasing rates of obesity. The uterus may become enlarged or the cancer may spread, causing lower abdominal pain or pelvic cramping. Of women with these less common symptoms, 10–15% have cancer. Symptoms other than bleeding are not common, and 10-15% of women with this type of cancer have cancer, but are not as common as those with cervical cancer or uterine sarcoma. In obesity, the excess of adipose tissue increases conversion of androstenedione into estrone, an estrogen.