Iran, also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is the second largest country in the Middle East, and its capital and largest city is Tehran. Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BC. It has 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third largest number in Asia and 10th largest in the world.
About Iran in brief
Iran, also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is the second largest country in the Middle East, and its capital and largest city is Tehran. Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BC. It has 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third largest number in Asia and 10th largest in the world. The Government of Iran is an Islamic theocracy, which includes elements of a presidential democracy, with the ultimate authority vested in an autocratic \”Supreme Leader\”, a position held by Ali Khamenei since 1989. The Iranian government is widely considered to be authoritarian, and has attracted widespread criticism for its significant constraints and abuses against human rights and civil liberties, including the violent suppression of mass protests, unfair elections, and unequal rights for women and children. The term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief. According to the Iranian mythology, the country’s name comes from the name of Iraj, a legendary prince and shah who was killed by his brothers who were known as Araj shah. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, mainly due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persians, meaning “land of the Persians”, while in ancient inscriptions and literature of the ancient Persian language, Iran is referred to by the term “Aryān” or “Iranian” Iran is a regional and middle power, with a geopolitically strategic location.
It has large reserves of fossil fuels — including the world’s second largest natural gas supply and the thirdlargest proven oil reserves. It also has the third highest population in the region, with 83 million people living in the capital city of Tehran. The country’s rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO world heritage sites, which include the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and Turkey and Iraq. The current Islamic Republic was established in 1979, and is a founding member of the UN, ECO, OIC, and OPEC. Iran is also a major oil producer and exporter, with its reserves of natural gas and crude oil estimated to be worth more than $2.5 billion per year. Iran has a population of 1,648,195 km2, and the capital is Tehran, the largest city in the country. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BC, and reached its territorial height in the sixth century BC. In the 15th century, the native Safavids re-established a unified Iranian state and national identity. Iran became a major center of Islamic culture and learning during the Islamic Golden Age. It subsequently became a center of cultural learning, with art, literature, philosophy, and architecture spreading across the Muslim world and beyond.