Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a barrister, politician and the founder of Pakistan. He served as the leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan’s independence on 14 August 1947. Jinnah also served as Pakistan’s first Governor-General until his death in 1948. He is revered in Pakistan as Quaid-i-Azam and Baba-o-Qaum.
About Muhammad Ali Jinnah in brief
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a barrister, politician and the founder of Pakistan. He served as the leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan’s independence on 14 August 1947. Jinnah also served as Pakistan’s first Governor-General until his death in 1948. He is revered in Pakistan as Quaid-i-Azam and Baba-o-Qaum. His birthday is a national holiday in Pakistan. According to his biographer, Stanley Wolpert, Jinnah remains Pakistan’s greatest leader. He died at age 71 in September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence from the United Kingdom. His religion at the time of his death was disputed in multiple court cases. He was from a wealthy merchant background, his father was a merchant and was born to a family of textile weavers in the village of Paneli in the princely state of Gondal ; his mother was also of that village. He had three brothers and three sisters, including his younger sister Fatima Jinnah Kutchi. The parents were native Gujarati speakers, and the children came to speak neither English nor Urdu. Except for Fatima, little is known of Jinnah’s early life, or if they met with their brother in his legal and political careers. He gained his matriculation from Bombay University, studying at the Gokal Das Tej Tej Primary School and John Connon Connon High School. His mother was not fluent in English, nor in Urdu, but he was fluent in Gujarati, his Urdu-tongue, and Fatima Fatima.
He attended the Sindh-Madrasa High School and the Christian Missionary Society High School in Karachi, now in Sindh, Pakistan. His parents were from a Gujarati Khoja Shi’a Muslim background, though Jinnah later followed the Twelver Shi’a teachings. As a boy, he lived for a time in Bombay with an aunt and an aunt, and may have attended an aunt’s primary school. He also lived with his brother and aunt in Bombay, where he may have met his siblings as he was a boy. He became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League, and proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims. In 1920, he resigned from the Indian National Congress when it agreed to follow a campaign of satyagraha, which he regarded as political anarchy. By 1940, he had come to believe that Muslims of the Indian subcontinent should have their own state to avoid the possible marginalised status they may gain in a Hindu-Muslim state. In that year, the Muslim League, led by Jinnah, passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding a separate nation. During the Second World War, the League gained strength while leaders of the Congress were imprisoned, and in the elections held shortly after the war, it won most of the seats reserved for Muslims. He worked to establish the new nation’s government and policies.