Mozambican War of Independence
The Mozambican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front or FRELIMO, and Portugal. The war officially started on September 25, 1964, and ended with a ceasefire on September 8, 1974, resulting in a negotiated independence in 1975. The conflict erupted in 1964 as a result of unrest and frustration amongst many indigenous Mozambicans, who perceived foreign rule as exploitation and mistreatment.
About Mozambican War of Independence in brief
The Mozambican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front or FRELIMO, and Portugal. The war officially started on September 25, 1964, and ended with a ceasefire on September 8, 1974, resulting in a negotiated independence in 1975. Portugal’s wars against guerrilla fighters seeking independence in its 400-year-old African territories began in 1961 with Angola. The conflict erupted in 1964 as a result of unrest and frustration amongst many indigenous Mozambicans, who perceived foreign rule as exploitation and mistreatment. The growing communist influence within the group of Portuguese insurgents who led the military coup and the pressure of the international community in relation to the Portuguese Colonial War were the primary causes of the outcome. According to historians of the Revolution, the coup in Portugal was in part fuelled by protests concerning the conduct of Portuguese troops in their treatment of some of the indigenous Moz Ambican populace. Nonetheless, the Portuguese regular army held the upper hand during the conflict against F RELIMO guerrilla forces. The Carnation Revolution backed by portions of the military in Portugal overthrew the Salazar regime, thus ending 470 years of Portuguese colonial rule in the East African region. In 1926, Portugal established Loureno Marques as the capital of the Second Republic and a revival of interest in the African colonies. Calls for self determination in Mozambiques arose shortly after World War II, in light of the decolonisation of many other colonies worldwide in the great wave of independence.
In the same year, Portugal designated an overseas territory of Mozambiqua as the Portuguese colony of Angola, which became an independent state in 1974. The resisting resisting tribes were defeated in 1895, and the remaining inland tribes were eventually defeated by 1902; that same year Portugal established Mozambica as an overseas colony. The Portuguese colony became an autonomous state in 1926, and a year later, it became the Portuguese Republic. In 1961, Portugal declared independence from the UK, which had ruled the colony since the 17th century. In 1966, Portugal became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, and in 1973, it was recognised by the United Nations as a full member. In 1974, Portugal was awarded the right to self-determination in all of its overseas colonies. In 1975, the Carnation revolution overthrew Salazar and led to the establishment of a new government, which was led by President Filipe Nyusi, who was later overthrown by President dos Santos in a military coup. The new government was known as the Democratic Party of the Socialist Workers’ Movement (PDSM) and the PDSM became the ruling party of the African National Congress (PNC) in the 1980s. In 1986, the PNDM was granted independence from Portugal. In 1989, the first elections were held, with the support of the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Tanzania, Zambia, Egypt, Algeria, Gaddafi regime in Libya and Brazil through arms and advisers, leading to the outbreak of violence.