Bloody Sunday (1920)
More than 30 people were killed or fatally wounded on 21 November 1920. The day began with an IRA operation to assassinate undercover British agents. Later that afternoon, British forces raided a Gaelic football match in Croke Park. Without warning, the police opened fire on the spectators and players, killing or fatally wounding 14 civilians and wounding at least sixty others.
About Bloody Sunday (1920) in brief
More than 30 people were killed or fatally wounded on 21 November 1920. The day began with an IRA operation to assassinate undercover British agents. Later that afternoon, British forces raided a Gaelic football match in Croke Park. Without warning, the police opened fire on the spectators and players, killing or fatally wounding 14 civilians and wounding at least sixty others. Two of those killed were children. Overall, the IRA assassination operation severely damaged British intelligence, while the later reprisals increased support for the IRA at home and abroad. The events on the morning of 21 November were an effort by the IRA in Dublin, under Michael Collins and Richard Mulcahy, to destroy the British intelligence network in the city. Michael Collins was the IRA’s Chief of Intelligence and Finance Minister of the Irish Republic. Since 1919 he had operated a clandestine \”Squad\” of IRA members in Dublin who were tasked with assassinating prominent RIC officers and British agents, including suspected informers. By late 1920, British Intelligence in Dublin had established an extensive network of spies and informers around the city, including eighteen purported British Intelligence agents known as the ‘Cairo Gang’. The IRA also believed that British forces were implementing a co-ordinated policy of assassination of republicans. The number of assassination teams was eventually lowered again, again, on the grounds that there was insufficient evidence against some of those named. On the night of 20 November, the assassination leaders of the. Irish Republic, Cathal Brugha, the Minister for the Defence for the Republic, reportedly named 20 teams of the IRA. The list was reduced to thirty-five on the insistence of Cathal Cathal.
Brugha was put in charge of planning the assassination of some of the leading figures in the republic, including Dick McKans, who was later hanged in March 1921 for his part in the assassinations. In early November 1920, some prominent IRA members. in Dublin were almost captured by British forces, but British forces seized documents which included names and addresses of 200 IRA members, including Dick McKans. On 10 November, Mul cahy narrowly evaded capture in a raid, and British forces seize documents which include names and. addresses of200 IRA members and a variety of sympathetic sources, including maids and other sympathetic servants, including sympathetic British servants. In response to increasing IRA activity, the British government began bolstering the RIC with recruits from Britain, who became known as ‘Black and Tans’ due to their mixture of black police and khaki military uniforms. It also formed an RIC paramilitary unit, the Auxiliary Division. Both groups soon became notorious for their reprisal against the civilian population. In Dublin, the conflict largely took the form of assassinations and reprisALS on both sides. The massacre further turned Irish public opinion against the British authorities. The British authorities accepted that the shooting was unprovoked, and a military inquiry concluded it was indiscriminate and excessive. That evening, two Irish republicans who had helped plan the earlier assassinations, along with a civilian who happened to be caught with the others, were beaten and shot dead in Dublin Castle by their British captors, who claimed they were killed during an escape attempt.