Intercontinental ballistic missile
Russia, United States, China, France, India, United Kingdom, and North Korea are the only countries that have operational ICBMs. Most modern designs support multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles, allowing a single missile to carry several warheads, each of which can strike a different target. First practical design for an ICBM grew out of Nazi Germany’s V-2 rocket program.
About Intercontinental ballistic missile in brief
Russia, United States, China, France, India, United Kingdom, and North Korea are the only countries that have operational ICBMs. Most modern designs support multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles, allowing a single missile to carry several warheads, each of which can strike a different target. The first practical design for an ICBM grew out of Nazi Germany’s V-2 rocket program. Early ICBm had limited precision, which made them suitable for use only against the largest targets, such as cities. Second- and third-generation designs dramatically improved accuracy to the point where even the smallest point targets can be successfully attacked. It was the same R-7 launch vehicle that placed the first artificial satellite in space, Sputnik, on 4 October 1957. First human spaceflight in history was accomplished on a derivative of R- 7, Vostok, on 12 April 1961, by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. The Atlas missile program was given the highest national priority in 1954, but it was not until 1954 that the Atlas missile was first tested. With the first successful flight on 11 June 1957, the first thermonuclear rocket blew up about 24 seconds before the first test flight of the Atlas A-monmon. This was a three-stage effort with only three partially successful launches until the third stage was used to test variations of the second stage of the V2 design.
The US initiated ICBM research in 1946 with the R-TVA-c project, but funding was cut after only three successful launches in 1948. The U.S. military started its own programs, leading to considerable duplication of effort. In the USSR, early development was focused on missiles able to attack European targets. This changed in 1953 when Sergei Korolyov was directed to start development of a true ICBM able to deliver newly developed hydrogen bombs. It is still used as the launch vehicle for the SovietRussian Soyuz spacecraft, marking more than 60 years of operational history. This article was originally published in the magazine of The International Institute for Strategic Studies (TIAS). For more information, visit the Institute’s website: http://www.intifas.org/instruments/intercontinental- ballistic-missile-research-and-strategy/icbm-programs/ICBM-program-program. For more details on the Atlas rocket program, visit the International Institute of Strategic Study (IIS) or visit the Institute’s website:http:// www.iis.org.uk/ Atlas rocket program programs and strategies/ Atlas-A-monuclear-thermonuclear thermonmonuclear.html. For confidential support call the Samaritans on 08457 90 90 90 or visit a local Samaritans branch or the Samaritans branch on the University of London, London, or call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline on 1-800-273-8255.