By mid-December 2020, 57 vaccine candidates were in clinical research, including 40 in Phase I–II trials and 17 in Phase II–III trials. Pfizer, Moderna, and AstraZeneca predicted a manufacturing capacity of 5.3 billion doses in 2021, which could be used to vaccinate about 3 billion people.
About COVID-19 vaccine in brief
A COVID‑19 vaccine is intended to provide acquired immunity against COVID-19. By mid-December 2020, 57 vaccine candidates were in clinical research, including 40 in Phase I–II trials and 17 in Phase II–III trials. Pfizer, Moderna, and AstraZeneca predicted a manufacturing capacity of 5.3 billion doses in 2021, which could be used to vaccinate about 3 billion people. By December, more than 10 billion vaccine doses had been preordered by countries, with about half of the doses purchased by high-income countries comprising only 14% of the world’s population. A multinational collaboration, including the World Health Organization, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, GAVI, the Gates Foundation, and governments, formed the Access to COVAX Tools Accelerator, to raise financial support of accelerated research and development of COVA X vaccines. The goal is to provide equal access for up to 2 billion doses by the end of 2021 to protect frontline healthcare workers and people with high-risk of COVID19 infection, particularly in low-to-low-to low-income nations. The ACT Accelerator is a cross-discipline support structure to enable partners to share resources and knowledge. The United States withdrew its financial support for the WHO, and did not support the ACTcelerator. It comprises four pillars, each managed by two to three collaborating partners: A. Collaboration to Accelerate the Development, Production and Equitable Access to New COVIX diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines, a G20 initiative announced by pro-tem Chair Mohammed al-Jadaan on 24 April 2020, and a call to action was published simultaneously by the World health Organization on 24April 2020.
A. A specific development program called the \”COVAX Pillar\\X Pillar has the goal of facilitating the licensing of several vaccine candidates, influencing pricing and influencing pricing, and providing equal access to up to two-billion doses by 2021 to end of the pandemic. The Pillar is aimed at helping to secure the 2 billion vaccine doses, 245 million treatments, and 500 million tests that the initiative deemed necessary to shorten the Pandemic and speed economic global recovery. During the Trump administration, the UN and European Union cohosted the Inaugural Meeting of the Facilitation Council of the ACT-Accelerator, which had received USD 2.7 billion of the USD 35 billion necessary to secure 2 billion vaccines. As of 3 January 2021, 12. 3 million doses of CO VID-19 vaccine had been administered worldwide based on official reports from national health agencies. National regulatory authorities have approved six vaccines for public use: two RNA vaccines, two conventional inactivated vaccines, and two viral vector vaccines. Many countries have implemented phased distribution plans that prioritize those at highest risk of complications such as the elderly and those at high risk of exposure and transmission such as healthcare workers. For comparison, during the Ebola virus epidemic of 2013–16, there were 37 vaccine candidates in urgent development, but only one eventually succeeded as a licensed vaccine.