Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark was Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland by marriage to King James VI and I. The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at age 14. She bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. Though she was reported to have been a Protestant at the time of her death, she may have converted to Catholicism at some point in her life.
About Anne of Denmark in brief
Anne of Denmark was Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland by marriage to King James VI and I. The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at age 14 and bore him three children who survived infancy, including the future Charles I. She demonstrated an independent streak and a willingness to use factional Scottish politics in her conflicts with James over the custody of Prince Henry and his treatment of her friend Beatrix Ruthven. In England, Anne shifted her energies from factional politics to patronage of the arts and constructed her own magnificent court, hosting one of the richest cultural salons in Europe. After 1612, she suffered sustained bouts of ill health and gradually withdrew from the centre of court life. Though she was reported to have been a Protestant at the time of her death, she may have converted to Catholicism at some point in her life. Anne was born on 12 December 1574 at the castle of Skanderborg on the Jutland Peninsula in the Kingdom of Denmark to Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow and King FrederickII of Denmark. Anne enjoyed a close, happy family upbringing in Denmark, thanks largely to Queen Sophie, who nursed the children through their illnesses herself. Suitors from all over Europe sought the hands of Anne and Elizabeth in marriage, including James VI of Scotland who favoured Denmark as a kingdom reformed in religion and a profitable trading partner. James’ other serious possibility, though eight years his senior, was Catherine, sister of the Huguenot King Henry III of Navarre, who was favoured by Elizabeth I of England.
Anne herself seems to have was thrilled with the match. On 28 July 1589, the English spy Thomas Fowler reported that Anne was ‘so far in love with the King’s Majesty as it were death to her to have it broken off and hath made good proof divers ways of her affection which his Majestie is apt enough to requite.’ Anne married by proxy to James at Kronborg Castle, the Netherlands, on 20 August 1589. On September 12, Lord Dingwall had landed at Leith, Scotland, reporting that Anne had come in company with the Queen’s fleet three hundred miles and was separated from them by a great storm. On the same day, the Earl of Marischal and others had travelled by land to Oslo for refuge, accompanied by the Earl and Countess of Maral, and others of the Danish and Norwegian embassies. On 12 September, Lord Leith had landed in Leith and reported that the Queen’s fleet was separated by a storm and that it had come to Leith for refuge. On 13 September, the Scottish and Danish embassies had travelled from Leith to Oslo, where she was reunited with the Earl, Countess and others. On 14 September, Anne was married to Lord Maral and the Earl Maral. On 20 August 2015, Anne and James were married in a ceremony ending with James’ representative, George Keith, sitting next to Anne on the bridal bed.