Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George’s Channel. As of 2016, 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland, and 1. 8 million live in Northern Ireland. The name Ireland derives from the Proto-Indo-European root *h2uer, referring to flowing water.
About Ireland in brief
Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George’s Channel. As of 2016, 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland, and 1. 8 million live in Northern Ireland. The earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD. The island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became increasingly sovereign over the following decades. The names Ireland and Éire derive from Old Irish Ériu, a goddess in Irish mythology first recorded in the ninth century. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus very moderate, and winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, and Ireland’s lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate which is free of extremes in temperature.
There are twenty-six extant land mammal species native to Ireland. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. The name Ireland derives from the Proto-Indo-European root *h2uer, referring to flowing water, and may derive from the Irish goddess of the same name, Ériu. Ireland is arguably the oldest field system in the world, with an extensive field system that has been preserved beneath a blanket of peat peat in Tyat-day in County Tyat in the present-day Tyat. The first evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Ferriter’s Cove, where evidence for a flint knife and a sheep’s tooth were carbon-dated to c4350 BC. Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe in the last glacial period, and until about 10,000 BC, was periodically covered in ice. By 16,000BC, rising sea levels caused by ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Britain. Later, around 6000 BC, Great Britain became separated from continental Europe, with Ireland becoming separated from the rest of Europe. In 1973, Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the U.K., and Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. In the late 1960s until the 1990s, Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 60s until 1998. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998.