The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is an ethnic and territorial conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. The conflict has its origins in the early 20th century, though the present conflict began in 1988. Both sides made claims of ethnic cleansing and pogroms conducted by the other. As many as 230,000 Armenians and 800,000 Azerbaijanis have been displaced.
About Nagorno-Karabakh conflict in brief
The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is an ethnic and territorial conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. The conflict has its origins in the early 20th century, though the present conflict began in 1988. A ceasefire signed in 1994 provided for two decades of relative stability, which significantly deteriorated along with Azerbaijan’s increasing frustration with the status quo. A four-day escalation in April 2016 became the deadliest ceasefire violation until the 2020 conflict. The fighting stopped with a ceasefire agreement on November 10 2020, by which most of the territories lost by Azerbaijan during the First Nagorny Karabakh war were returned to Azerbaijan. Both sides made claims of ethnic cleansing and pogroms conducted by the other. As many as 230,000 Armenians and 800,000 Azerbaijanis have been displaced as a result of the conflict. A Russian-brokered ceasefire was signed in May 1994, leading to diplomatic mediation. Some sources accused Azerbaijan of trying to take advantage of ongoing unrest in Armenia. It involved the heaviest fighting between ethnic Armenian and Azerbaijani forces over the disputed region of Nagorno Karabakht. It was also involved in the 2008 Mardakertak protests after the Armenian election protests on 4 March after the election. The president of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev, has claimed that the conflict has ended. The declaration of secession from Azerbaijan was the final result of a territorial conflict regarding the land. The enclave’s parliament had voted in favor of uniting with Armenia.
A referendum, boycotted by the Azerbaijanis, was held, whereby most. of the voters voted in favour of independence. The demand to unify with Armenia, which began anew in 1988, began in a relatively peaceful manner. As the Soviet Union’s dissolution neared, the tensions gradually grew into an increasingly violent conflict. Full-scale fighting erupted in the late winter of 1992. International mediation by several groups, including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, failed to bring resolution. In the spring of 1993, Armenian forces captured territory outside the enclave itself, threatening to catalyze the involvement of other countries in the region. By the end of the war in 1994, the Armenians were in full control of the enclave and currently hold and currently 9% of Azerbaijan’s territory outside Nagornokarabakh. The region is de facto controlled by the self-declared Republic of Artsakh, but are internationally recognized as de jure part of Azerbaijan. It is also claimed that Armenians from Azerbaijan are essentially cleansing Armenia and Karababakh from Azerbaijan of Armenians, and of Azerbaijan of Azerbaijanis. The situation has been described as a “conflict of the first order” by the U.S. State Department and the United Nations. The U.N. Security Council has called for an end to the conflict between the two countries. It has also called for the establishment of an international panel of mediators to help resolve the conflict, including Russia, France, Germany, and the UK.