Caligula, formally known as Gaius, was the third Roman emperor, ruling from AD 37 to 41. He was the son of the popular Roman general Germanicus and Augustus’ granddaughter Agrippina the Elder. Caligula was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy by officers of the Praetorian Guard, senators, and courtiers. His death marked the official end of the Julii Caesares in the male line.
About Caligula in brief
Caligula, formally known as Gaius, was the third Roman emperor, ruling from AD 37 to 41. He was the son of the popular Roman general Germanicus and Augustus’ granddaughter Agrippina the Elder. Caligula was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy by officers of the Praetorian Guard, senators, and courtiers. The Julio-Claudian dynasty continued to rule the empire until the fall of his nephew Nero in 68. His death marked the official end of the Julii Caesares in the male line. He is best remembered for the construction of two aqueducts in Rome: the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus. He also worked to increase the unconstrained personal power of the emperor, as opposed to countervailing powers within the principate. The sources focus upon his cruelty, sadism, extravagance, and sexual perversion, presenting him as an insane tyrant. He lived on the island of Capri, where he lived for six years under the personal care of Tiberius, his adoptive grandfather. He had two older brothers, Nero and Drusus, as well as three younger sisters, Agrippinas the Younger, Julia Drusilla and Julia Livilla. Calgula was also a nephew of Claudius, Germanicus’ younger brother and the future emperor. He died in 41, and his brother Nero was banished on charges of treason and suicide. After his death, his brother, his great-grandmother Livia Minor, died from either starvation or suicide.
According to historians, Caligulas was an excellent actor, recognizing the danger of his mother and his brothers and sisters under the close watch of his father Tiberio. He never married and was never allowed to remarry for fear of being seen as a rival to his adoptive father, the emperor Tiberii. He spent his last years on Capri living with his mother. After he was sent to live with his grandmother Livia, he was then sent to Antonivia. He later lived in Rome with his brother DrusUS, who died in exile in AD 30. He then went to live in Italy with his sister Julia. In 31 he was remanded to the home of his adoptive mother, LiviaMinor, where she died in 29. After her death in 30, he lived with his grandfather Antonio, who lived in exile. In 29, he moved to Rome with Livia. In 30, his father Antonivia died and he was taken in by Tiberia, who raised him as his son-in-law. In 37, he succeeded his grandfather as emperor. In 41, he died of a heart attack, and was succeeded by his uncle, Claudius. The Praetorians declared Claudius to be the next Roman emperor. His reign ended on the day of the assassination of Caligulus, who was declared emperor on the next day of AD 41. The Romans annexed the client kingdom of Mauretania as a province.