Turkey is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered on its northwest by Greece and Bulgaria; north by the Black Sea; northeast by Georgia; east by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran; southeast by Iraq; south by Syria and the Mediterranean Sea; and west by the Aegean Sea. Istanbul is the largest city, while Ankara is the capital.
About Turkey in brief
Turkey is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered on its northwest by Greece and Bulgaria; north by the Black Sea; northeast by Georgia; east by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran; southeast by Iraq; south by Syria and the Mediterranean Sea; and west by the Aegean Sea. Approximately 70 to 80 percent of the country’s citizens are ethnic Turks. Istanbul, which straddles Europe and Asia, is the largest city, while Ankara is the capital. Turkey is a developing country, a regional power, and a newly industrialized country, with a geopolitically strategic location. The English name of Turkey ) means \”land of the Turks\”. The modern spelling of Turkey dates back to at least 1719, and the Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage. In a non-binding vote on 13 March 2019, the European Parliament called on the EU governments to suspend Turkey’s accession talks; which, despite being stalled since 2018, remain active as of 2020. The country is a secular, unitary, formerly parliamentary republic that adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017; the new system came into effect with the presidential election in 2018. The Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his comrades against the occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of the sultanate on 1 November 1922. Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995, and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
The nation is a charter member of UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF, and the World Bank, and is a founding member of OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC, and G20. It has also been inhabited at least forty thousand years ago, and known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Various ancient Anatolians lived in Anatolia until the Hellenistic period, and spoke a branch of the Indo-European family: Hittite and Luwite. Some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre of the hypothetical European centre from which radiated radiated languages, such as Hittite, Luwites, Hittites, and Lusitanias. The Anatolsian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. It was home to important Neolithic sites, and was inhabitated by various civilisations. The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century and ruled Anatolia before the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. In the late 13th century, the Ottomans started uniting the principalities and conquering the Balkans. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire became a world power.