Edward I of England
Edward I, also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved from an early age in the political intrigues of his father’s reign. Edward spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. Modern historians are divided on their assessment of Edward.
About Edward I of England in brief
Edward I, also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved from an early age in the political intrigues of his father’s reign. Edward spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. Modern historians are divided on their assessment of Edward: while some have praised him for his contribution to the law and administration, others have criticised him. Edward is credited with many accomplishments during his reign, including restoring royal authority and establishing Parliament as a permanent institution. He is also often criticised for other actions, such as his brutal conduct towards the Welsh and Scots, and issuing the Edict of Expulsion in 1290, by which the Jews were expelled from England. The Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages, and it was over 350 years until it was formally overturned under Oliver Cromwell in 1657. Edward I was a tall man for his era, at 6 ft 2 in, hence the nickname \”Longshanks\”. He was temperamental, and this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, and he often instilled fear in his contemporaries. He held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son Edward II an ongoing war with Scotland and many financial and political problems.
Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the night of 17–18 June 1239, to King Henry III and Eleanor of Pro-Saxon. He was devoted to the veneration of Edward the Confessor, and decided to name his firstborn son after the saint. There were concerns about Edward’s health as a child and he fell ill in 1246, and fell in a coma. He took over at Giffard–heccard until Bartholomew Peccccard–in 1246 until his death in 1272. The future Chancellor of the realm, Godfrey Gaffard, was his friend and companion during the civil war and later during the crusade, both through the war and after that followed. He died in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey. He had a son, Edward II, who was born in 1276. Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over Scotland. Although Edward recovered his duchy, this conflict relieved English military pressure against Scotland. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation, and Edward met with both lay and ecclesiastical opposition. These crises were initially averted, but issues remained unsettled. Edward found himself at war with France after King Philip IV of France had confiscated the Duchy of Gascony, which until then had been held in personal union with the Kingdom of England. The war that followed continued after Edward’s death, even though the English seemed victorious at several points.