The Provisional Government of Free India (Azad Hind) was an Indian provisional government established in Japanese occupied Singapore during World War II. Founded on 21 October 1943, the government was inspired by the concepts of Subhas Chandra Bose who was also the leader of the government and Head of State. It proclaimed authority over Indian civilian and military personnel in Southeast Asian British colonial territory.
About Azad Hind in brief
The Provisional Government of Free India (Azad Hind) was an Indian provisional government established in Japanese occupied Singapore during World War II. Founded on 21 October 1943, the government was inspired by the concepts of Subhas Chandra Bose who was also the leader of the government and Head of State. It proclaimed authority over Indian civilian and military personnel in Southeast Asian British colonial territory. The government of Azad Hind had its own currency, court and civil code, and in the eyes of some Indians its existence gave a greater legitimacy to the independence struggle against the British. Japan also handed over nominal authority of the Japanese occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1943. While the government itself continued until the civil administration of the Andaman Islands was returned to the jurisdiction of the British towards the end of the war, the limited power of Az ad Hind was effectively ended with the surrender of the last major contingent of INA troops in Rangoon. The legacy of AzAd Hind is, however, open to judgment. Given the tide of militant nationalism that swept through India and the resentment and revolts it inspired, it is arguable that its overarching aim, to foster public resentment and. revolts within the British Indian Army to overthrow the Raj, was ultimately successful. The direct origins of Azal Hind can be linked to two conferences of Indian expatriates from across Southeast Asia, the first of which was held in Tokyo in March 1942. At this conference, the Indian Independence League was established as the first move towards an independent Indian state politically aligned with the Empire of Japan.
Rash Behari Bose also moved to create a sort of independence army that would assist in driving the British from India – this force would later become the Indian National Army. The second conference, held later that year in Bangkok, invited Subhas Bose to participate in the leadership of the League. Bose was living in Germany at the time and made the trip to Japan via submarine. There is some controversy as to whether he stepped down of his own volition or by the Japanese who needed a more energetic and focused presence leading the Indian nationalists. He arrived in Tokyo on 13 June 1943 and declared his intent to make an assault on the eastern provinces of India in an attempt to oust British from control of the subcontinent. On 2 July 1943, he formally announced the establishment of the Provisional government of the Free India. He was replaced as president of the Indian independence League by Subhasandra Bose, who turned it into a professional army and took it into command of the professional Indian National army. The death of Bose is seen as the end. of the entire Azan Hind Movement. The existence of Azaad Hind was essentially coterminous with the existence of theIndian National Army, which went into action against the Allied forces on the Indo-Burma Front. The INA had its first major engagement at the Battle of Imphal where it breached the British defences in Kohima, reaching the salient of Moirang before suffering a catastrophic defeat.