Antiochus XII Dionysus
Antiochus XII reigned as King of Syria between 87 and 82 BC. He was the youngest son of Antiochus VIII and his Egyptian wife Tryphaena. He focused his attention on Syria’s southern reaches into which the Judaeans and Nabataeans sought to expand. He may have received assistance from Ptolemaic Egypt to gain his throne, which is reflected in his coinage.
About Antiochus XII Dionysus in brief
Antiochus XII reigned as King of Syria between 87 and 82 BC. He was the youngest son of Antiochus VIII and his Egyptian wife Tryphaena. His four brothers laid claim to the throne, eliminating his uncle Antiochus IX as a claimant. He focused his attention on Syria’s southern reaches into which the Judaeans and Nabataeans sought to expand. After several victories in his first campaign, Antiochus XII was killed towards the end of his second campaign against the Nabateans at the Battle of Cana in 82BC. He may have received assistance from Ptolemaic Egypt to gain his throne, which is reflected in his coinage. He likely used his other epithets to associate himself with the Greek god of wine in his role as conqueror of the East. His dominion was limited to inner Syria and centered on Damascus, which served as his primary capital. His coins minted during the reign of Demetrius III are dated to the Seleucid year 225, while the earliest coins minting during his reign have the date 226 SE, suggesting there was a rapid assumption of power by Antiochus XI. He died of an unknown illness in 82 BC, leaving a power vacuum in Damascus that was filled by his brother Antiochus XIII. His son Antiochus X fought with his brother’s half-brother Antiochus VII for the throne of Syria.
His widow Cleopatra Selene took shelter in P tolemais with her sons by AntiochUS X. He is believed to have been killed in a battle with the Nabataan King Aretas III, who was allied with the Parthian king Philip I. His coinage shows him with an exaggerated hawked nose in a likeness of his father, as a means of strengthening the legitimacy of his succession. He also used an exaggerated nose in his coins to emphasize the ancestry of his grandfather, Philopator and Callinicus, in contrast to the line of the latter’s brother AntiochUS VII, which was represented by his descendants. His reign is thought to have lasted from 87 to 82 BC; he is the last king of the Hellenistic period to be recorded on coins. The reign of his brother Philip I lasted from 88 BC to 87 BC, when he was defeated by Philip I and exiled to Parthia, where he died from unknown illness. His sons Antiochus XIV and Antiochus XV also reigned from 87 BC until his death in 81 BC. His grandson Antiochus V ruled from 81 BC to 81 BC, but he was killed in battle with Nabatean king Areta III. His daughter Antiochus VI ruled from 79 BC to 79 BC, and he died in 79 BC. In 79 BC he was succeeded by his son Seleukus VII, who ruled for a few years before dying.