2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami ) occurred at 07: 58: 53 in local time on 26 December. It was an undersea megathrust earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9. 1–9. 3 Mw. Communities along the surrounding coasts of the Indian Ocean were severely affected. The tsunamis killed an estimated 227,898 people in 14 countries, making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history.
About 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami in brief
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami ) occurred at 07: 58: 53 in local time on 26 December. It was an undersea megathrust earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9. 1–9. 3 Mw. A series of massive tsunami waves grew up to 30 m high once heading inland. Communities along the surrounding coasts of the Indian Ocean were severely affected. The tsunamis killed an estimated 227,898 people in 14 countries, making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. The earthquake was the third-largest ever recorded and had the longest duration of faulting ever observed, between eight and ten minutes. It caused the planet to vibrate as much as 10 mm, and also remotely triggered earthquakes as far away as Alaska. The plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response, with donations totalling more than US$14 billion. Since 1900, the only earthquakes recorded with a greater magnitude were the 1960 Great Chilean earthquake and the 1964 Good Friday earthquake in Prince William Sound. The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9. 0 or greater were off Kamchatka, Russia, on 4 November 1952 and Tōhoku, Japan in March 2011. Other huge earthquakes occurred in 1868; 1812 ; 1827 ; 1812 and 1700. All of them are believed to be greater than magnitude 9, but no accurate measurements were available at the time of the 2004 earthquake. The 2004 earthquake was unusually large in geographical and geological extent.
An estimated 1,600, about 15 m along the subduction zone where the Indian Plate slides under the Burma Plate. It took place in two phases over several minutes: the first phase involved a rupture about 400km long and the second about 100km long. The northern section of the Sundamegathrust ruptured over a length of 1,300 km. The earthquake was felt in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. The 2002 Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshock, preceding the main event by over two years. This quake, together with the Good Friday Earthquake and the Great Chile earthquake account for almost half of the total moment. Of all the moment released by earthquakes in the 100 years from 1906 through 2005, roughly one eighth was due to the 2004 IndianOcean earthquake. Although the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has accepted these new numbers, the U.S. Geological Survey has so far not changed its estimate of Mw 9.1-9.3. The 2004 quake was initially documented as having a moment magnitude of 8. 8. In February 2005, scientists revised the estimate of the magnitude to 9.0. The quake is thought to have taken place off the western coast of northern Sumatra, in theIndian Ocean just north of Simeulue island at a depth of 30 km below mean sea level. It did not happen instantaneously but did not take place in several minutes.