Vijayanagara literature in Kannada
Vijayanagara literature in Kannada was written during the Vijayanagara Empire. The empire was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I. influence of Jain literature was on the wane with increasing competition from the resurgent Veerashaiva faith and Vaishnava bhakti movement.
About Vijayanagara literature in Kannada in brief
Vijayanagara literature in Kannada was written during the Vijayanagara Empire. The empire was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I. The influence of Jain literature was on the wane with increasing competition from the resurgent Veerashaiva faith and Vaishnava bhakti movement. Writers of this period popularised use of the native metres: shatpadi, sangatya, and tripadi. The best-known writers from these faiths produced lesser quality writings with a sectarian bent. The most famous commentators were the Brahmin commentators Dandara Dasa and Kanaka Dasa. They typically wrote the message of God to the people in the form of melodious songs composed using folk genres. They also wrote philosophy and philosophy under the patronage of royalty and the Bhakti poets who played no role in courtly matters. They were also the most famous writers of the genres Kumyasa Vyasa and Timmanna Kavi among the best known writers of these genres. It was written by members of the royal family, their ministers, army commanders of rank, nobility and the various subordinate rulers. It also included a vast body of devotional folk literature written by musical bards, mystics and saint-poets, influencing society in the empire. It is named after its capital city Vijayanagar, whose ruins surround modern Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka. It lasted until 1664, but its power declined after a major military defeat by the Shahi Sultanates in the battle of Talikota in 1565.
In an important age ofKannada literature, competition between VaishNava and Veer Sashaiva writers came to the fore. The Veerashasivas had initiated an important change, casting aside the concept of formal literature and making way for shorter local genres. The Vaish nava haridasas later popularised musical forms that were more acceptable to the common man. The Jain writers had to reinvent their art, moving away from the traditional themes of renunciation and tenets to focus on contemporary topics. This significant shift in the literary landscape was coupled with major political changes that were taking place in southern India in the early 14th century. With the decline of the regional Hindu kingdoms, the Vijayasagara Empire had risen as a bulwark against Muslim incursions from the north while creating an atmosphere conducive to development of the fine arts. It led to a shift in literary landscape from written classics eulogising kings and commanders to sung folk traditions, with singability being its hallmark, and devotion to God its goal. In the 13th century, Andayya’s Kabbigara Kava was an early example of the change in literary style, and also reflected the hostility toward the Veerasherasivas. The rule of King Krishnadeva Raya of the Tuluva dynasty and his successors was a high point in Vaishesnava literature.