Carlisle is located 10 miles south of the Scottish border. Originally in the historic county of Cumberland, it is now the largest settlement in the county. It was once a Roman settlement, established to serve the forts on Hadrian’s Wall. The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution began a process of socioeconomic transformation in Carlisle.
About Carlisle in brief
Carlisle is a border city and the county town of Cumbria. It is the administrative centre of the City of Carlisle district in North West England. Carlisle is located 10 miles south of the Scottish border. Originally in the historic county of Cumberland, it is now the largest settlement in the county. At the time of the 2001 census, the city’s population was 71,773, with 100,734 living in the wider city. By the 2011 census, Carlisle’s population had risen to 75,306, with 107,524 in the broader city. The Roman settlement was named Luguvalium, based on a native name that has been reconstructed as Brittonic *Luguwaljon, a masculine Celtic given name meaning ‘strength of Lugus’ Carlisle Castle, still relatively intact, was built in 1092 by William Rufus, and once served as a prison for Mary, Queen of Scots in 1568. The castle now houses the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment and the Border Regiment Museum. The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution began a process of socioeconomic transformation in Carlisle, which developed into a densely populated mill town. The town gained the status of a city when its diocese was formed in 1133, and the priory became Carlisle Cathedral. In the early 12th century, Henry I allowed the foundation of a priory in the town. It became an important military stronghold during the Middle Ages, because of its proximity to the Kingdom of Scotland. Today Carlisle today is the main cultural, commercial and industrial centre for north Cumbrian, and is home to the main campuses of the University of Cumbria and a variety of museums and heritage centres.
It was once a Roman settlement, established to serve the forts on Hadrian’s Wall. According to Boethius and John of Fordun,. Carlisle existed before the arrival of the Romans in Britain and was one of the strongest British towns at the time. The earliest recorded inhabitants were the Carvetii tribe of Britons who made up the main population of ancient Cumbrias and North Lancashire. In 79, the two Roman generals Gnaeus Julius Agricola and Quintus Petillius Cerialis advanced through Solway as they continued their campaign further north. In 122, the sole regiment of the Ala Gallorum Petriana, which lay within sight of the Stanwix area of the city, was abandoned. In 130, Anton Pwixius Pius built a stone fort along the length of Hadrian’s Wall and was completed in stone around 130, the largest fort in the north of the river. Like the Roman fort, it was the only one in northwest Britain to have been built on the model of other such sites in Roman Britain. This is possibly indicated from the reconstruction of the fort at Carlisle in 83 using oak timbers from further afield, rather than local alder. At this time the Roman Fort was garrisoned by a 500-strong cavalry regiment, the AlaGallorum Sebosiana.