The word apple, formerly spelled æppel in Old English, is derived from the Proto-Germanic root *aplaz, which could also mean fruit in general. The original wild ancestor of Malus domestica was Malus sieversii, found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia. In 2010, the fruit’s genome was sequenced as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.
About Apple in brief
The word apple, formerly spelled æppel in Old English, is derived from the Proto-Germanic root *aplaz, which could also mean fruit in general. The original wild ancestor of Malus domestica was Malus sieversii, found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and northwestern China. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Commercial growers aim to produce an apple that is 7 to 8. 5 cm in diameter, due to market preference. Some consumers, especially those in Japan, prefer a larger apple, while apples below 5.5 cm are generally used for making juice and have little fresh market value. In 2010, the fruit’s genome was sequenced as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production. Worldwide production of apples in 2018 was 86 million tonnes, with China accounting for nearly half of the total. Apple is dioid, though triploid strains are not uncommon, with an estimated size of approximately 650 Mb. Several whole genome sequences has been made available, the first was based on the diploid cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’ The first whole genome was turned out to contain several errors in part owing to the high degree of heterozygosity in diploids in the apple, which is in an ancient combination with ancient duplication, which complicated the assembly of the genome.
In recent years, double-haploid individuals have been sequenced, yielding a higher quality sequence of higher quality sequences to yield higher quality whole sequences of the apple. The apple is a deciduous tree, generally standing 2 to 4. 5 m tall in cultivation and up to 9 m in the wild. When cultivated, the size, shape and branch density are determined by rootstock selection and trimming method. The leaves are alternately arranged dark green-colored simple ovals with serrated margins and slightly downy undersides. Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves and are produced on spurs and some long shoots. The skin of ripe apples is generally red, yellow, green, pink, or russetted, though many bi- or tri-colored cultivars may be found. The fruit matures in late summer or autumn, and cultivars exist in a wide range of sizes. The exocarp is generally pale yellowish-white, though pink or yellow exocarps also occur. The 3 to 4 cm flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, and have an inflorescence consisting of a cyme with 4–6 flowers. The central flower of the inflorescence is called the ‘king bloom’; it opens first and can develop a larger fruit. In the wild, the central flower is called the “king bloom,” which opens first.