Political parties in the United States
Since the 1850s, they have been the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. This two-party system is based on laws, party rules and custom, not specifically outlined in the US Constitution. Several third parties also operate in the U.S. and from time to time elect someone to local office. The largest third party since the 1980s has been the Libertarian Party.
About Political parties in the United States in brief
Since the 1850s, they have been the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. This two-party system is based on laws, party rules and custom, not specifically outlined in the US Constitution. Several third parties also operate in the U.S. and from time to time elect someone to local office. The largest third party since the 1980s has been the Libertarian Party. Some political candidates, and many voters, choose not to identify with a particular political party. The Founding Fathers did not originally intend for American politics to be partisan. It was the split camps of Federalists, given rise with Hamilton as a leader, and Democratic-Republicans, with Madison and Thomas Jefferson at the helm of this political faction, that created the environment in which partisanship, once distasteful, came to being. In some states, independents are not allowed to vote in primary elections, but in others, they can vote in any primary election of their choice. Most self-described independents consistently support one of the two major parties when it comes time to vote, according to Vox Media. These two parties have won every United States presidential election since 1852 and have controlled the United States Congress since at least 1856. However these names have been in existence since before the Civil War, and have not always represented the same ideology or electorate. The first two- party system consisted of the Federalist Party, which supported the ratification of the Constitution, and the Democratic-Republican Party or the Anti-Administration party, which opposed the powerful central government that the Constitution established when it took effect in 1789.
The Second Party System operated from the late 1820s to the mid-1850s. Two major parties dominated the political landscape: the Whig Party, led by Henry Clay, that grew from the Republican National Party; and the Democrats led by Andrew Jackson, who supported the primacy of the Presidency over the other branches of government. The last major party realignment was in the early 1990s, when the Democrats became the center-left and liberal party and the Republicans became the right-wing and conservative party. The United States Constitution is silent on the subject of political parties. It does not mention the term ‘party’ in the Declaration of Independence, nor does it mention the concept of a ‘party system’ or a ‘two-party’ system in the First Amendment to the US constitution. In addition, George Washington, was not a member of any political party at the time of his election or throughout his tenure as president. He hoped that political parties would not be formed, fearing conflict and stagnation, as outlined in his Farewell Address. Nevertheless, the beginnings of the American two- Party system emerged from his immediate circle of advisers, including Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, who wrote the aforementioned Federalist Papers against political factions. Hamilton and Madison ended up being the core leaders in this emerging party system. The Federalists survived their refusal to support the Federalists in the 1800s and the War of 1812 in the Northeast.