Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication. It is used in the treatment of many conditions, including rheumatic problems. It may be given by mouth, as an injection into a muscle, or as a vein injection. Long-term use of dexameth asone may result in thrush, bone loss, cataracts, easy bruising, or muscle weakness.
About Dexamethasone in brief
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication. It is used in the treatment of many conditions, including rheumatic problems, a number of skin diseases, severe allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, croup, brain swelling, eye pain following eye surgery, and along with antibiotics in tuberculosis. It may be given by mouth, as an injection into a muscle, or as a vein injection. The long-term use of dexameth asone may result in thrush, bone loss, cataracts, easy bruising, or muscle weakness. In 2017, it was the 321st most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than one million prescriptions. It was first made in 1957 by Philip Showalter Hench and was approved for medical use in 1961. It can increase the antiemetic effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, but the exact mechanism of this interaction is not-defined. In adrenocortical insufficiency, it should be used together with a medication that has greater mineralocorticoid effects such as fludrocortisone. In preterm labor, it may be used to improve outcomes in the baby. In cancer patients, it is used to counteract certain side effects of antitumor treatments. It has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects.
In certain malignancies, especially in multiple myeloma, it can counteract the development of brain edema, which could eventually compress the spinal cord, compressing the tumor. It’s also given in certain eye drops – particularly after eye surgery – and as a nasal spray, and certain ear drops. It acts to reduce the inflammatory response of the body to the bacteria killed by the antibiotics, thus reducing hearing loss and neurological damage. In transvenous screw-in cardiac pacing leads, the steroid is released into the myocardium as soon as the screw is extended and can play a significant role in minimizing the acute pacing threshold due to the reduction of inflammatory response. The typical quantity present in a lead tip is less than 1.0 mg. In children, a single dose can reduce the swelling of the airway to improve breathing and reduce discomfort. In adults, a high dose can help reduce the discomfort of croup in children, as it reduces the swelling in the airways and reduces discomfort. DexamethAsone intravitreal steroid implants have been approved by the FDA to treat ocular conditions such as diabetic macular edema.